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Monday, 23 February 2015

Good Deep Sleeps Keeps Your Stem Cells Young

Summary:
Environmental stress is a major factor in driving DNA damage in adult hematopoietic stem cells, researchers have found, concluding that a good night's sleep keeps your stem cells "young."

Friday, 20 February 2015

Solution to FANCONI Anemia


What Is Fanconi Anemia?

There are several inherited diseases that lead to blood disorder, among them is Fanconi Anaemia. The acronym is FA; Fanconi is a rear disease, what it does is to cause failure in the bone marrow system. Bone marrow failure is a very dangerous problem; when it strikes it mean there are no daily generations of new cells in the body.

The normal reproduction of blood cells for every normal human being must be in cyclical formation in order to replace the dead cells with the new ones as soon as they die. When cells are dying without replacement, it means the beginning of big problem and thus opens room for various dangerous diseases, such as leukemia cancer, and the person stand a very big risk of developing tumor. 

The lifespan of red blood cells is about 120 days. White blood cells live less than 1 day. Platelets live about 6 days, for every healthy person. Bone marrow must constantly be reproducing to make new blood cells for a balanced or healthy living.

No one can predict the lifespan of someone who is suffering from FA disease. The average lifespan for those who have FA are between 20 and 30 years - they usually die young. The most common causes of death is FA and via bone marrow failure related diseases such as leukemia and solid tumors; FA also damages organs when have chance to spread to the organs and tissues and the entire blood system. 

Another scenario is that FA also causes bone marrow to make faulty blood cells which can lead to serious health problem, such as leukemia and many other blood cancers. FA is inheritable and the children who inherited it stand the risk of being born with defects and also stand the risk of transferring it to their own children 

Some people misquote Fanconi syndrome for FA, while they are two different diseases. Fanconi syndrome affects the kidneys. It's a rare and serious condition that mostly affects children and hinders their health and developmental problems.

Fanconi Anemia and Your Body

FA is one of many types of anemia disease. The term "anemia" means a condition in which the blood has a lower level of normal number of red blood cells. That is, when the blood cells are dying more than they are reproduced.

FA is related to aplastic anemia. In aplastic anemia; the bone marrow stops making or doesn't make enough of all three types of blood cells. Low levels of the three types of blood cells can harm many of the body's organs, tissues, and systems.

With too few red blood cells, your body's tissues won't get enough oxygen to work well. Because the red blood cells are oxygen transporter to every part of the body. With too few white blood cells, your body may have problems fighting infections. This can make you sick more often and make infections worse. With too few platelets, your blood can’t clot normally. As a result, you may have bleeding problems.

Treatment of FA with Stem Cells

The first line of therapy is androgens and hematopoietic growth factors, but only 50-75% of patients respond. A more permanent cure is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation if no potential donors exist, a sibling can be of help by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to match the recipient's HLA type.

But now the latest treatment of Franconi Anemia with stem cells transplant has now reached advanced stage and it has proved that the patient with FA can now live long. But however, someone with FA still stand the high risk of having cancer. Because the patient has the genesis of the FA on them as it can still affect the transplanted blood.cells


Written by Chriskehin

References :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214322/
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19192.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fanconi_anemia


Tuesday, 17 February 2015

What is Bone Marrow and Benefits



What is Bone Marrow and Types and Benefits?

Bone marrow is a typical soft gelatinous tissue found in the medulla hollow of human bones, it is the producer of the red blood cells and white blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: the red bone marrow (known as myeloid tissue) that consists mainly of hematopoietic tissue and yellow bone marrow (also known as fatty tissue) i.e. platelets and most white blood cells are produced in red bone marrow.

Importance of Bone Marrow in Human Body

Bone marrow on daily, produces more than 200 billion new blood cells on a single person’s body and when your bone marrow is diseased, there is no human can enjoy himself or remain in existence - i.e, based on the level of the defect. And when there is disease in the bone marrow, it also affects the productions of the stem cells of that particular person.

Subtopics in This Article
  • What is Bone Marrow and Types?
  • Importance of bone marrow in the body
  • Types of Bone Marrow 
  • Disease of Bone Marrow
  • What are bone marrow tests?
  • Sources of Bone Marrow
  •  Who are Eligible to Donate Bone Marrow?
  • What are the Benefits of Bone Marrow Transplants?

There are these three diseases that can affect bone marrow:

·        Leukemia, when there is presence of leukemia, it means the presence of cancer in the bone marrow and the incidence of abnormal productions of white blood cells. 

 What is Leukemia?

Leukemia is a typical cancer in the white blood cells that destroys white blood cells, white blood cells is the source of defense for human body against infections of all types that can affect human system, be it in the blood or tissues and when there is leukemia cancer in the defense system of anybody, there is no more production of white blood cells; in a simple explanation, that person is exposed to attack from any disease of all types.

There are four different types of Leukemia cancer 

·         Acute myeloid leukemia
·         Acute lymphocytic leukemia
·         Chronic myeloid leukemia
·         Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

When there is aplastic anemia it also means the bone marrow is no longer capable of producing red blood cells. 
Factors that can cause aplastic anaemia includes hereditary, cancer can spread from other parts of the body to the bone,  stem cells damages due to attack by body’s white blood cells; this sometime occur due to mistake by the immune system, fanconi anaemia, shwachman-diamond syndrome dyskeratosis (DIS-ker-ah-TO-sis) congenita, and diamond-blackfan anemia.

Also when bone marrow is damaged, it can no longer produce any healthy blood cells..

The Acquired Causes

Many diseases, conditions, and factors can also cause aplastic anemia, including:
  • Toxins, such as pesticides, arsenic, and benzene.
  • Radiation and chemotherapy (treatments for cancer).
  • Medicines, such as chloramphenicol (an antibiotic rarely used in the United States).
  • Infectious diseases, such as hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus (si-to-MEG-ah-lo-VI-rus), parvovirus B19, and HIV.
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Pregnancy. (Aplastic anemia that occurs during pregnancy often goes away after delivery.)
Factors that can temporarily or permanently injure bone marrow and affect blood cell production includes:
  • Radiation and chemotherapy treatments. ...
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals. ...
  • Use of certain drugs. ...
  • Autoimmune disorders. ...
  • A viral infection. ...
  • Pregnancy. ...
  • Unknown factors.
While the presence of lymphoma means the existence of the diseases that can spread to the real bone marrow and destroy the actual production of the bone marrow itself.
Bone marrow disease can be treated with either medicine, blood transfusion or by other bone marrow transplants harvested from another source.

Source of Bone Marrow

Bone marrow can be harvested from the eligible donors, besides someone who is having the presence of leukemia, lymphoma and aplastic anaemia a test must be conducted to ascertain non availabilities of diseases, to avoid transfusion of further problem into another person who needed treatment.

Who are Eligible to Donate Bone Marrow

The general guidelines for bone marrow donation as recommended by the NMDP. These guidelines are put into place to protect the health and safety of the donors and the recipients. Donors are encouraged to contact their local NMDP center for specific details and to discuss donations with their health care team.
  • To be listed in the registry, potential donors must be healthy and between the ages of 18 and 60.
  • If matched with a person needing a transplant, each donor must pass a medical examination and be infection-free before donating bone marrow.
  • Most people taking medications can still donate bone marrow as long as they are healthy, and any medical conditions they have are under control at the time of the donation. Acceptable medications include birth control pills; thyroid medication; antihistamines; antibiotics; prescription eye drops; and topical medications, such as skin creams. Anti anxiety and antidepressant drugs are allowed as long as the person's medical condition is under control.
  • People who cannot donate bone marrow include pregnant women, users of intravenous drugs that are not prescribed by a doctor, people who have had a positive blood test for hepatitis B or hepatitis C, and those with specific medical conditions, such as most types of cancer or certain heart conditions.
  • People with Lyme disease, malaria, or recent tattoos or piercings should wait at least a year before donating bone marrow. 
 What are the Benefits of Bone Marrow Transplants

The list of diseases for which HSCT is being used is rapidly increasing. More than half of autologous transplantations are performed for multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and a vast majority of allogeneic transplants are performed for hematologic and lymphoid cancers.
Every 4 minutes in the US, someone is diagnosed with a blood cancer. For many patients, a bone marrow transplant is the best chance for survival. While 30% of patients can find a matching donor in their families, 70% - approximately 14,000 each year - must rely on unrelated donations.

Written by Christkehin

Refrences:


Saturday, 14 February 2015

Stem Cells therapies for eye diseases



Latest Development on Stem Cells and Gene Profiling technique

A technique for eye therapies has been developed by the National Institutes of Health in USA, to speed up the production of stem-cells for retinal treatment in order for the eye patients to regain their sight. The technique will help the researchers in their efforts to use the patient’s skin cells to regenerate the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)

The RPE is a single layer of cells that lies adjacent to the retina, where the light-sensitive photoreceptors commonly called rods and cones are located. The RPE supports photoreceptor function. Several diseases cause the RPE to break down, which in turn leads to the loss of photoreceptors and vision.

The stem cells Dr. Bharti is using to make RPE are induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells, which are produced by reverting mature cells to an immature state, akin to embryonic stem cells. iPS cells can be derived from a patient’s skin or blood cells, coaxed into other cell types (such as neurons or muscle), and in theory, re-implanted without causing immune rejection.

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