Wednesday, 25 March 2015

Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

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The International Diabetes Federation estimates that up to 95% of the 380 million people worldwide who are affected by diabetes suffer from type 2 diabetes. Thus, the potential impact of a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes is enormous. Despite obvious differences in the pathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes, both diseases are characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis resulting from insufficient insulin production by pancreatic beta cells. In type 1 diabetes, beta cell destruction by the immune system is rapid and extensive, causing severe insulin deficiency. In contrast, beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes occurs gradually over time and is associated with peripheral insulin resistance. 

Clinical studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes also have reduced beta cell mass and declining beta cell function during the progression from pre-diabetes to overt diabetes. Therefore, treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes should be aimed at restoring beta cell mass and/or function, in addition to improving insulin sensitivity.

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Ability to repair bone joint cartilage with stem cells improves further

Solution for patients with osteoarthritis for their painful joints by using stem cell therapy to regenerate damaged cartilage is getting  improved on daily basis; the researchers reported successfully producing cartilage in rats using embryonic stem cells.

Researchers hope their new stem cell protocol will one day be used to treat the painful joint condition osteoarthritis.

A new dimension or protocol for using human embryonic stem cells at the University of Manchester in UK has found a better developed way of using human stem cells to regenerate the laboratory rat was successful. It was reported after series of tests conducted on the laboratory rat was successful. 

The researchers report a study about their work - funded by Arthritis Research UK - in the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine. The study shows how they used the new protocol to grow and transform human embryonic stem cells into cartilage cells.

Leading the research is Sue Kimber, a professor in the Faculty of Life Sciences at Manchester, who, with her colleagues, hopes their approach could in future be used to treat the painful joint condition osteoarthritis. She notes:

"This work represents an important step forward in treating cartilage damage by using embryonic stem cells to form new tissue, although it's still in its early experimental stages."

Osteoarthritis mainly affects people over the age of 60, and is a major cause of disability. It is a degenerative disease caused by wearing away of cartilage in joints that have been continually stressed during a person's lifetime, including the knees, hips, fingers and lower spine region.

The World Health Organization estimates that around 9.6% of men and 18.0% of women aged over 60 years have symptomatic osteoarthritis.

Researchers generated precursor cartilage cells from embryonic stem cells

Cartilage cells - also known as chondrocytes - are formed from precursor cells called chondroprogenitors. In their study, the team describes how they used the new protocol to generate chondroprogenitors from human embryonic stem cells.

They implanted the precursor cartilage cells into damaged cartilage in the knee joints of rats.
After 4 weeks the cartilage was partially repaired. After 12 weeks, the cartilage surface was smooth and similar in appearance to normal cartilage.

Later examination of the regenerated cartilage showed that cartilage cells from the embryonic stem cells were still present and active in the tissue.

The study is promising because not only did the new protocol lead to regenerated, healthy-looking cartilage, but there were none of the adverse side-effects that have since dashed the high hopes raised in the early days of stem cell research - the growth of abnormal or disorganized tissue or tumors.

Testing the new protocol is the first step toward trials in human arthritis patients

Testing the new protocol in rats is the first step toward running trials in people with arthritis. But before this can happen a lot more needs to be done to show the protocol works and is safe. The team is already planning their next step to build on their findings.

Another approach to using human embryonic stem cells to generate new cartilage cells is using adult stem cells. Adult stem cells are found in certain "niches" in the body and are not as controversial as embryonic stem cells but their potential is not so great. Also, note the authors, they cannot currently be produced in large amounts and the procedure is expensive.

Dr. Stephen Simpson, director of research at Arthritis Research UK, says he is encouraged by the new study because:

"Embryonic stem cells offer an alternative source of cartilage cells to adult stem cells, and we're excited about the immense potential of Professor Kimber's work and the impact it could have for people with osteoarthritis."

He explains that current treatments for osteoarthritis can only relieve painful symptoms, and there are no effective therapies that delay or reverse cartilage degeneration. Joint replacements are successful in older people, but these options are not effective in younger people or athletes with sports injuries.
In January 2015, Medical News Today learned about a new project that is going to test a new bone growth-accelerating therapy in space. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station and scientists stationed on Earth are going to assess how well a bone-forming molecule called NELL-1 promotes bone formation and protects against bone degeneration.

Friday, 20 March 2015

New Hope for Kidney Disease Patients

 Solution for Scarring Disease

Written by: Chriskehin

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Recently, there is a new medical development discovery that now gives hope to patients with kidney scarring disease. It has been discovered that Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be developed by a number of many factors, such that may become permanent and irreversible.

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is a permanent and irreversible problem and when such stage is attained by any patient the only solution is dialysis or transplantation.

Monach University science research department has for the first time ever shown the effectiveness of a stem cell therapy with anti-scarring agent reversed scarring and markers of kidney injury.

Scarring effect is when excessive amounts of protein excreted in the urine, a condition known as proteinuria. As the blood vessels in the kidneys become damaged from scarring, the walls of the blood vessels begin to leak protein from the bloodstream into the urine. The excess protein may cause urine to take on a foamy or frothy appearance. Proteinuria is one of the first signs of kidney scarring, and many tests for kidney scarring involve testing for high levels of protein in the urine.

Kidney scarring is also known as glomerulosclerosis. which refers to the glomeruli, the clusters of miniscule blood vessels inside the kidney that filter wastes out of the blood for excretion in urine. The factors that can lead to kidney scarring include high blood pressure, diabetes, drug use, kidney infection and several diseases such as lupus, an autoimmune disorder resulting in hardening of body tissues.

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Monday, 2 March 2015

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are typical cells found in either bone marrow or from umbilical cord of a newborn babies, stem cells contains Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), which is very vital in human body.  HPC is what makes stem cells vital; it has ability to regenerate or repair other weak or sick cells.
Stem cells have these inherent abilities of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods, while muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells do not normally replicate themselves. Stem cells have the abilities to replicate themselves many times into other types of cells; they can as well yield millions of cells if the resulting cells continue to be unspecialized.
Stem cell, in many tissues serves as the internal repairer, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells; hence the person or animal is still alive. When stem cell splits, each new cell has the potential to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.
Stem cells can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly splits or replicate to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues in other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only replicate under special conditions.

The Usages
These days stem cells are being used for treatments of so many types of diseases; such as  
Metabolic Disorders,
Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes, 
Blood Disorders/Hemoglobinopathies, 
Emerging Treatments. And 
Many other diseases are still undergoing series of researches.

Types of Stem Cells:

There are three known types of stem cells in human being namely:

Embryonic Stem Cells,

Adult Stem Cells and

Induced Pluripotent stem cells,

They are all interrelated in behavior in terms of repairs, forming or given life to other cells in the body and they also have common qualities in them such as their inherent abilities of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods.

The in-depth origin of the adult stem cell is still under research, it is said to be a typical undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells of tissue or organs, a kind of cells that capable of changing other cells when a particular condition that requires its functions. 

The adult stem cells are capable of not undergo any changes; adult stem cells will automatically swing into action and develop healthy cells for the required tissue or cells

To be continued